DISTRIBUTION AND MANAGEMENT
Balakrishnan, Suresh &
Sita Sekhar, "Slum-Dwellers
Ratings of Public Sevices", ' Public Services and the Urban Poor in
- A report Carde', Public Affairs Centre,
Bangalore, 1998, [ C.J33],
Abs: These are few chapters from the report 'Public Services & the Urban Poor in Mumbai - A Report Card'. This reports attempts to gather insights on key areas such as To what extent urban service have reached slum dwellers?, To what extent have initiatives of urban NGOs reached slum dwellers? etc.
Das, Binayak, "Shut
and Dried - Private participation
in the urban water sector has failed to take off", Down
New Delhi, 15 September 2002, [C.J33], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M034.html
The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Plan (1970-91) took an
of the entire region. The plan worked out the water requirement based
estimated population for 1991 and also identified water resources for
It is possible in principle to attract private investment in water resource development it purchase of bulk water at attractive rates is guaranteed. The investment could also be on "Build, Operate and Transfer" terms where private investors agrees to transfer the assets after certain number of years. But given the delays endemic in the process of source development and inability of local governments to change economic water rates it is difficult to attract private investment in practice...
The water tariff is same for a slum dwellers cooperative which shares a stand post between 15 families and probably receives less than 50 ipcd of water and an apartment owner on Malabar Hill who consumes over 200 ipcd...
Differential pricing related to level of consumption is justifiable from the point of generation of funds for future water supply schemes as well as to promote equitable distribution of water.
"Planning Division Bombay Metropolitan Region Dev.Authority, Water Resources Planning",'Bombay Metropolitan Region, Planning Division Bombay Metro', Mumbai. Pg. 1-13, 16-21, June 1991. [R.J33.15].
Only 4% receive water for more than 8 hours...
33% receive water for more than 4 hours...
42% receive water for just 3 hours...
21% receive water for less than 3 hours...
In the last category the minimum period as recorded by consumers is very often Only One Hour.
Increase in metered connections in either of the Suburban areas is more than one-and-half times that in the City indicating residential building activity in the Suburbs, giving inference of growth of economically comfortable people in those areas. This is because there is no space left within the City Wards for construction of new housing colonies. The City Wards have stiull got many consumers whose connections are unmetered and who pay water charges linked with rateable value of property and hence do not pay for actual consumption of water. It is debatable whether metering of such areas in any case is worthwhile when water supply is less than 2 to 3 hours per day.
Unvala, S P, "Five Minutes to Midnight, Indian Water Works Association", Mumbai. Pg. 1-28,1995. [R.J33.1].
If city planning does not incorporate the needs of the
even theoretically adequate quantities of water will be inequitably
leading to waste on the one hand and water starvation on the other...
While an paper the city has enough water to supply just under 200 liters per day per person, in fact the better off areas get in excess of 300 I/p/d while the poorer areas get hardly 50 I/p/d...
The system of distribution calculates water releases according to metered connections. This ensures that the rich, who can afford individual of water per day than the poor, who either have no regular water supply or have to share one tap with many families.
"Water Solidarity Network, Water and Health in Underprivileged Urban Areas", UNCED, France. Pg. 154-155. February1994. [R.J33.6].
Families that live in peri-urban settlements build on the
outside city limits (which means they pay a premium in travel to work
schools), on land that is not zoned for housing, or on land considered
dangerous or environmentally protected. They usually have paid the
owner or occupant the full purchase price, but receive no registered
to the land. They generally do not participate in local government, and
they are not connected to the municipal service network...
Those who benefit from public services pay the marginal costs that their new service represents. But when the cost of additional infrastructure includes a new trunk line, reservoir, or additional treatment plants, as they can when peri-urban or suburban sites are linked up to a municipal aqueduct, the marginal costs tend to increase, and with them the burden on poor families, which are the last to get services.
Solo, Tovo Maria, Perez , Eduardo & Joyce, Steven, "Constraints in Providing Water and
Sanitation Services To The Urban Poor", Office of Health,Bureau for Re, Washington, pg.1-27, I-VII, March 1993. [R.J33.16].
The 1.9 billion people now living in cities in developing
to 295 million in 1950) represent two-thirds of the global urban
In 2030, the number is expected to reach 4.1 billion - 80% of
One answer to poverty and fragmentation is segmentation of services available to different sets of city-dwellers...
Greater availability of basic services in different forms to people who can't pay for them is a major challenge.
Payen, Gerard, "Working Together for a Sustainable Future: How Public-Private Partnerships Are Finding New Solutions to Water Needs", Lyonnaise Des Eaux, France. Pg.7-9, 13-14, 15-17, 2000. [R.J33.15].
The study pointed out that water gets contaminated during
The main reasons for this are listed as mixing of sewage with drinking
water and gross neglect of hygiene.
Jamwal, Nidhi, "Shocktail: Mumbai's Water Too Dirty to Drink", Down To Earth, New Delhi, 31 August 2003. [C.J33.310803DTE].
Rajadhyaksha, Radha, "When the BMC Breaks Its Own Rules,Who's to Play Policeman? "The Times of India, Mumbai, 21 August 2001. [C.J33.210801TOI].
Deshmukh, Smita, "We Want the Garden, NGOs Tell BMC", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 September 2001. [C.J33.120901TOI].
The excavated roads and pavements have in the last month
fires and water breaches. It's all happening because there's a traffic
jam of utilities developing under ground-and one digger never knows
the other is doing.
Upadhyaya, Uma, "There's a Traffic Jam Under Your Feet…", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 March 2003. [C.J33.070303TOI].
The fear is of gas leakage much of South Mumbai is congested
pipelines are of plastic. The multiple lances and by lanes and other
problem make it extremely difficult for the company to lay down
Kolhatkar, Neeta, "Mahanagar Is All Gas for South Mumbai", The Times of India. Mumbai, 13 January 2000. [C.J33.130100TOI].
This Scandinavian country has been a world pioneer in
policy making way back since the early 1970s. Today it remains as one
the world's leaders in the implementation of environment-friendly
planning and practices especially in sustainable water, wetland,
waste and traffic management and control of CO2 emissions.
"Clean Up, Cut Down and Save", Utusan Konsumer, Malaysia, 01 May 2001. [C.J33.010501UKO].
"Civic Standing Committee Rejects Plans for Independent Water Board", The Times of India, Mumbai, 25 April 2001. [C.J33.250401TOI].
We found three water pipe joints that were completely
submerged in the
Ali, S. Ahmed, "Bugs, Sewage Pour Out of Vakola Taps", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 18 October 2001. [C.J33.181001IE].
In the last five years, water contamination has ranged from
cent to 25 per cent in the ward -- the highest in the city.
is in the form of bacteriological content. The area is devoid of slums
but has a large number of old building sand chawls.
"Water, Water Everywhere", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 September 2002. [C.J33.020902TOI].
Though the permissible level for wastage is around 15 per cent
wastes around 20 to 25 per cent every day...
"During non-supply hours, pipelines are empty and the pressure outside is much greater. Water from outside forces itself into the pipes and mixes with the fresh water that flows in when supply is resumed.
Ramanujan, Sweta, "City's Water Pipelines Choke Under Pressure", The Times of India, Mumbai,01 July 2002. [C.J33.010702TOI].
On an average, a chawl resident consumes between 70 to 80
water a days. But a person living in a high-rise generally uses a
machine, a bath tub, high-pressure flushing systems, showers and wter
which takes the daily consumption up to more than 240 litres.
Bharucha, Nauzer, "High-Rises Squeeze South Mumbai City", The Times of India, Mumbai, 19 July 2002. [C.J33.190702TOI].
The city's total water requirement is 3,900 million litres per
but the BMC has been supplying only 2,900 mld. Of this, 20 per cent is
lost in transit. To add to this, there are leakages due to breaking of
pipes by slum-dwellers, a menace which has increased over the years.
Garari, Kaniza, "BMC Draws up Rs. 100-Crore Plan to Improve Water Supply", The Times of
India, Mumbai, 03 March 2003. [C.J33.030303TOI].
Times News Network, "BMC Will Approach Police in Alum Supplier Case", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 February 2003. [C.J33.080203TOI].
The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation late last month
tonnes of slum acquired to purify the city's water supply because the
was found to contain benzene and chloiroform -- substances that could
endangered Mumbai's health.
Sharma, Archana, "BMC Finds Toxic Chemicals in Alum Supply", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 February 2003. [C.J33.070203TOI].
"We are framing a policy with the Development Plan Department
proposals for new constructions of over 1,000 square meters will be
on the grounds that water harvesting be the developers priority. We
provide drinking and bathing water only."
Garari, "BMC Does the Tap Dance", The Times of India, Mumbai, 16 November 2002. [C.J33.161102TOI].
"Slum residents get a limited supply of water and are more
about its use. But those who receive a 24-hour supply are the ones who
Another problem facing Mumbai is the unchecked overflow of municipal water from overhead tanks of several housing societies.
Somit Sen, "Every Drop Counts: City Gets Ready to Save Water", The Times of India, Mumbai, 20 December 2002. [C.J33.201202TOI].
About 800 hectares of land in Beed district will be taken up
by the state government to compensate for the loss of 600 hectares of
cover in Thane district due to the proposed construction of another dam
on the Vaitarna lake.
Archana Sharma, "Dam on Vaitarna Will Spell Death of 10,000 Trees", The Times of India, Mumbai, 26 December 2002. [C.J33.261202TOI].
Somit Sen, "Worms in Water Supply Alarm Colaba Residents",The Times of India, Mumbai, 28 August 2002. [C.J33.280802TOI].
The rainwater harvesting and water recycling facilities would
for buildings constructed on a plot exceeding 2,000 square metres,
only a harvesting facility will be required if the plot size is below
Vijay Pandya, "Water Relief", The Telegraph, Kolkatta, 31 October 2002. [C.J33.311002TEL].
Compounding the plight is the rampant construction of
the indiscriminate use of transfer of development rights the leaking
to a nearby garden.
Archana Sharma, "Mumbai Reels Under Crisis as Taps Go Dry", The Times of India, Mumbai, 19 October 2002. [C.J33.191002TOI].
With water increasingly becoming a periodic privilege in many
the corporation is trying to curb the unauthorised installation of such
In addition to depriving other citizens of water, the pumps also cause wter contamination.
Archana Sharma, "Your Neighbour's Booster Pump is Denying you Water", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 November 2002. [C.J33.021102TOI].
Utility: 90 per cent of the water is used
for domestic purposes,
the rest for industrial use. A Mumbaiite uses 40 litres a day for
Rainfall: From 42 heavy rain days, the city has witnessed only an average of 25 days in the last three years.
Smita Deshmukh, "Worried BMC to Impose 10 pc Water Cut", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 April 2003. [C.J33.020403TOI].
For the last 10 years, around 50,000 litres a day leaks daily
of the reservoirs at Malabar Hill...
Besides illegal connections, every month more than 1,000 illegal booster pumps are removed by the civic staff. An engineer of H (west) war laments: "Within a month, these boosters come up again."
Uma Upadhyaya, "Water Cuts: It's Going to Get Very Bad", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 16 April 2003. [C.J33.160403IE].
"Conservation and reduction in demand is the only solution",
Bhatia, deputy municipal commissioner in charge of water projects. "At
present there is no alternative except an awareness amongst the people
to save water and some way to reduce influx of population."
Uma Upadhyaya, "No Quick Solution to City's Water Woes", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 17 April 2003. [C.J33.170403IE].
Archana Sharma, "Centre
Nixes Vaitarna Project,
"The Times of India, Mumbai, 19 April 2003.
Shailesh Gaikwad, "Now,
State Plans Authority to
Regulate Water, Fix Tariff", The Indian
Express, Mumbai, 30 April 2003. [C.J33.300403IE].
"Fundament'al Rights", The Economic Times, Mumbai, 14 April 2001. [C.J33.140401ET].
The proposed construction will take place over the next six
Nirmal Mishra, "BMC Goes 'Loo'ny, Plans 1000 Toilets in 6 Months", The Times of India, Mumbai, 17 April 2001. [C.J33.170401TOI].
Deputy mayor Arun Deo said that councillors had not used Rs.
last year from the fund allotted to them. From the total amount of Rs.
44 crore only Rs. 11 crore was used for various projects of which 90
cent was spent on flower pots...
"Since councillors have to show that money is being used from the funds allotted to them, they spend it even though the project is useless. If they don't use the money then the Rs. 20 lakh grant allotted to them lapses."
Sonal Shah, "Rs. 3-Cr BMC Flower Pots Used as Bins", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 05 August 2001. [C.J33.050801IE].
Nirmal Mishra, "BMC to Set Up 250 Kiosks in City", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 May 2001, [C.J33.120501TOI].
Reasons are aplenty why rainwater harvesting (RWH) has not
The concept of rain water harvesting is disarmingly simple. It is easy to install and easier to maintain.
Goutam Ghosh, "Too Simple to Bother", The Hindu, Chennai, 11 January 2001. [C.J33.110101H].
Times News Service, 'Group
Will Study Methods to
Conserve Water', The Times of India,
Mumbai, 10 November 2001. [C.J33.101102TOI].
You may not even have a water connection or a tap in your
No matter, If you are a resident of Ulhasnagar you will have to shell
a hefty amount as water tax...
The only solution offered by the authorities themselves is to buy water fromn the tankers. It is evident that a definite nexus exists between some civic officials and the tanker lobby, something that the mayor himself has not denied.
Yogesh Sadhwani, "Taps Run Dry, But Spate in Water Bills", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 16 March 2001. [C.J33.160301IE].
SUMATI K. SAMPEMANE, "Waste
as resource", Business
India, Bombay, 01 Sept 2003, [C.D70d.], /eldoc/d70d/01sep03bi1.html
DISPOSAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT - ALMs,
BMC, NGOs -
Alternatives in waste management
Karmalkar, Naresh, "Showing
the Way Towards Better
Solid Waste Management", Bombay First, Mumbai,
February 2000, [
Abs: Bombay First's Solid Waste Management (SWM) Committee focuses on getting together local citizens' groups, exposing them to best practices in SWM, and providing suitable infrastructural support to help them move towards zero garbage zones, through time-bound action plans.
Sampemane, Sumati K., "Waste as Resource - In Mumbai power flows from garbage mounds", Business India, Mumbai, 01 September 2003, [C.C33], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M032.html
D'Cunha, Gerson, "Agni Celebrates 4th Birthday", The Times of India, Mumbai, 01 April 2003, [C.J06], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M033.html
The waste disposal problem exists because most consumer goods
for a one-night stand...
An inventory of the world's discards would reveal metals more valuable than the richest ores, paper representing millions of hectares of forests, and plastics incorporating highly refined petrochemicals. That these products rich in raw materials and concentrated energy are frequently considered worthless is indicative of a distorted economic system. We are literally throwing away our future...
Recycling Trends and Potential...
Wastes available for recycling theoretically include all consumer discards. In practice, it is necessary to distinguish between quantity and quality. Some analysts assert that more than half the consumer waste stream can be economically recycled, although achieving such high rates requires careful waste handling...
United States, some 200 mills use only reclaimed paper. Developing countries that rely on wastepaper can conserve scarce wter for drinking supplies and can also keep down their foreign debts, since wastepaper mills require less imported equipment...
Cornerstones of a Recycling Society...
Historically, solid waste has been regarded more as a nuisance than as a real problem requiring a well-thought out solution...
Traimming wastes and using more recyclable materials cuts the need for imported resources, and reduces energy consumption as well as water and air pollution.
Pollock, Cynthia, "Mining Urban Wastes: The Potential for Recycling", Worldwatch Institute,
Washington. Pg. 5-13, 20-24, 41-42. April 1987. [R.D70d.3].
Aimed at encouraging citizens participation in resolving civic
like garbage disposal, drainage cleaning, road repairs, checking
and maintaining a clean environment, ALMs are expected to be a single
access to the whole range of BMC services.
Janaki Krishnamoorthi, "BMC At Your Doorstep", The Times of India, Mumbai, 13 July 2002.
"The city generates 5,000 tonnes of waste a day and all its
are reaching saturation point. Reducing and recycling garbage is our
The award is given to a building which achieves zero garbage through the participation of all its residents.
Anil Singh, "Junk Food for Thought", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 November 2002.
An NGO and streetsmart ragpickers has rendered this model area
ward, convincingly clean.
Anil Sadarangani, "No More Waste at Malabar Hill", The Times of India, Mumbai, 11 October
Residents turn wet waste into fertiliser. In their own
vermiculture and sell dry garbage to the local scrap dealer, while the
BMC saves the cost of picking up, transporting and disposing off the
Archana Sharma, "BMC, Residents Make Gains on ALM Streets", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 May 2002. [C.J33.240502TOI].
"In 1999, the Delhi government had initiated the "Clean Delhi"
with seven selected non-governmental organisations for door-to-door
collection and environment awareness...
The urban development department officials and most of the NGOs involved in the scheme term it a failure.The primary reason for the failure, claim NGOs has been "total indifference" of the government to allocation of funds.
Devirupa Mitra, "NGOs Allege Govt's Apathy, Fear Traditional Workers' Ire". The Statesman, Delhi, 21 April 2001. [C.J33.210401ST].
The study conducted recently by the National Institute of
proposed that the Mumbra-Diva region, along with the mangroves at
should be protected on priority basis or else the rich natural heritage
would be lost.
John Manjali, "Mangroves Destroyed as TMC Dumps Solid Waste", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 27 July 2000. [C.E31b.270700AA].
The penalty could be imprisonment and a fine of Rs 1 lakh. The
require among other things, that bio-medical or infectious waste be
from normal waste. Bio-medical waste is required to be sent to a BMC
at Sewri, if the hospital does not have an in-house facility.
Malathy Iyer, "State Pollution Board will Warn Hospitals Flouting Biowaste Rules", The Times of India. Mumbai, 29 January 2003. [C.J33.290103TOI].
The added clause in the Rs 7 crore de-silting contract making
that the lorry load of silt be weighed and recorded on electronic
before dumping has had the contractors developing a cold feet.
Express News Service, "Gutters Full But Stringent Clauses Mire Desilting Plan in Contractors' Refusals", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 14 April 2001. [C.J33.140401IE].
The Civic Solid Waste Management department currently suffers
crippling shortage of transport vehicles and has been forced to invite
private tenders for its garbage-transportation work.
Express News Service, "Cleanliness Drive Faces Further Delay", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 10 November 2002. [C.J33.101102IE].
"Garbage Clearance? What Rubbish! "The Indian Express, Mumbai, [C.J33.IE].
Times News Network, "BMC Plans Twin Dustbins for Garbage Disposal", The Times of India, Mumbai, 04 November 2002. [C.J33.041102TOI].
December 1, the Brihanmumbai municipal corporation (BMC) will
to segregate garbage into wet and dry waste. From April next year it
be mandatory and those who fail to do so will be fined a minimum of Rs.
Times News Service, "BMC to Launch Garbage Segregation Drive", The Times of India, Mumbai, 13 November 2002. [C.J33.131102TOI].
Times News Service, "Gorai Residents Cross Swords with Civic Chief Over Dumping Ground", The Times of India. Mumbai, 08 December 2002. [C.J33.081202TOI].
Sudeshna Chatterjee, "Churchgate's Dumping Man", The Times of India, Mumbai, 20 December 2002. [C.J33.201202TOI].
The recent protests by Gorai residents against the dumping
their area have revealed that the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
like other corporations of Navi Mumbai, Thane, and Nashik, has not
any area for a garbage dump in its Development Plan. The sites that
chosen as garbage dump sites were chosen merely because no development
existed in the area.
Rajshri Mehta, "BMC Flouts Rules to Set Up Dumps", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 28 December 2002. [C.J33.281202IE].
To start with, the BMC will make arrangements for
of segregated garbage--dry in white bags and wet in coloured bags...
The city generates 5,000 tonnes of garbage everyday, out of which 20 per cent is dry waste.
Archana Sharma, "Civic Body Banks on Ragpickers for its Clean-up Drive", The Times of India, Mumbai, 03 January 2003. [C.J33.030103TOI].
Starting next month, water bills sent to housing societies
a note on them saying that segregation of garbage is mandatory and
will be fined.
Express News Service, "If You Want Water, Separate Garbage", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 15 January 2003. [C.J33.150103IE].
They spent two unsuccessful years attempting to implement the
to segregate wet and dry garbage. But this time, BMC officials claim,
simply won't have a choice to refuse. Dumps are overflowing and the
one big dump.
"Do You Care Enough? ",The Indian Express, Mumbai, 16 January 2003. [C.J33.160103IE].
Only 2,500 tonnes of garbage are being carted off Mumbai's
day, even though it pays for 4,000 tonnes to be cleared...
The BMC spends an average of Rs. 40 crores annually to transport garbage from the 24 wards to the dumping grounds. The 1,500 tonnes of garbage that have stayed uncleared each day have cost the exchequer crores of rupees over the years.
Somit Sen, "BMC's Garbage Contracts Are a Load of Junk", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 January 2003. [C.J33.240103TOI].
Mr. Srivastava said that builders will be asked to set up pits
in the compound of new buildings.
Times News Service, "32 Housing Societies Fined for not Segregating Waste", The Times of India, Mumbai, 29 January 2003. [C.J33.290103TOI].
A sewage tunnel reaching 3.7 kilometres into the sea at
with a new pumping station -- the largest in Asia -- at Mahim, will
start operating in the first week of April, 17 years after work on them
Uma Upadhyaya, "After 100 Years, A Healthier, Cleaner City", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 09 March 2003. [C.J33.090303IE].
R MOHAN, "Clean
To Earth, New Delhi, 31 Aug 2003, [C.D70d.], /eldoc/d70d/31aug03dte7.html
PIALI BANERJEE, "Ragpickers
get training in garbage
management", Times of India, Bombay, 20 Aug 2003,
"Mumbai Cleans Up", Population Reports, New Delhi, 01 May 2003, [C.D70d.], /eldoc/d70d/01may03por6.html
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