TRANSPORT

SEA LINKS, TRAINS, SKYBUS; ALTERNATIVES IN TRANSPORT

Inquiry report on the sea link project which was released at a public meeting on Friday, the tribunal  unequivocally condemned the project on several counts, including for violating environmental laws and creating a negative social and environmental impact...
"Tribunal's Verdict Is Out: Worli-Bandra Sea Link Project Unviable", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 August 2001, [ E31b],  /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M036.html

"Transport In Mumbai - Going Nowhere?", Bombay First, Mumbai, 01 January 1998, [C.J32],  /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M038.html

Darryl D'Monte, "Roads to Nowhere", Bombay First, Mumbai, 01 June 1999, [C.J32], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M039.html

"Moving Forward To Better Urban Transport",The Sustran Network, Indonesia, [C.J32], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M040.html

There has been heavy investment in a plethora of roadways and a near-total neglect of public transport in a metropolis where the overwhelming majority rely on this mode to commure to work...
While successive state governments have been guilty of neglecting Mumbai's transport problems, it was the crstwhile Shiv Sena-BJP government which drastically altered the course. By initiating a range of road schemes, it unequivocally opted for private, motorised transport in preference to public transport. This may be said to fall in line with the economic liberalisation moves encouraged by successive national governments, with the state gradually withdrawing from area after area of public life.
Darryl D'Monte,' Mumbai's Urban Transport Infrastructure: The Missing Links', Globalisation & Urban Environment, 16 February 2001. [C.J32.071101].

The wealth of Mumbai is not events spread. For while the average per capita income is three times higher thatn that of the state of which it is the capital. Maharashtra one quarter of its residents live below the poverty line and half live in low-income areas designated by the government as 'slums' and informal settlements. These slum areas are located on land owned by the central and state governments the municipal corporation and private individuals and land which belongs to the airport an theory the port authorities and the railways. It is the settlements located in the last three locations that have a direct impact on the city's transport system, particularly in the case of the railways.
Sheela Patel & Kalpana Sharma, "One David and Three Goliaths: Avoiding Anti-Poor Solutions to Mumbai's Transport Problems", Environment and Urbanization, London, October 1998.[C.011098].

Grid Locked London started charging vehicles pound 5 (Rs. 383) for every entry into the core city this week in a desperate effort to lift worsening congestion.
Rajshri Mehta, "Are You Ready to Pay A Congestion Tax?", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 19 February 2003. [C.J32.190203IE].

The best way to avoid the problems of sprawl is to develop low income housing designed and located on high capacity public transport routes, so they have easy access. Good transport must be built into the development process. The housing sector must be related to the public transport system.
Vaishnavi C. Sekhar, "Central Parts of City Should Be Pedestrianised", The Times of India, Mumbai, 21 October 2002.[C.J32.211002TOI].

"Bijlee will hit the 48,000 cabbies badly," says A. L. Quadros of the Bombay Taximen's Union. "If the government had plans to introduce a nine-seater why did they give out so many taxi permits?"
Anil Singh, "Electric Vans Denied A Fare Deal", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 June 2002. [C.J32.070602TOI].

The Sky Bus has a capacity of carrying 15,000 person per hour per direction and according to KRCL, "is a technology break-through providing a total solution to the urban transport problem."
Our Correspondent, "Urban Department Clears Sky Bus Metro Project', Committee to Submit Report on Proposed Route, Viability in 3 Months", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 13 April 2001, [C.J32.130401AA].

Express News Service, "Mumbai to Get India's First Skytrain', High Density Andheri-Ghatkopar Stretch Identified As Prelude to Further Use in City", The Indian Express,Mumbai, 22 February 2003. [C.J32.220203IE].

Express News Service, "Govt Treads Cautiously on Skybus", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 12 August 2001. [C.J32.120801IE].

Girish Kuber, 'PM Clears KRC's Rs. 25,000-cr Sky Bus Project for 8 Cities', Plan To Cover Metros; Pune, Ahmedabad, B'lore, Hyderabad Too", The Economic Times, Mumbai, 10 August 2001. [C.J32.100801ET].

The Times of India News Service, "KRC to Launch 'Sky Bus Metro' System in Mumbai and Pune", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 July 2001. [C.J32.120701TOI].

"State to Fund KRC Skybus Project on Trial Basis", The Economic Times, Mumbai, 15 April 2001. [C.J32.150401ET].

KRC has proposed an equity-based community system, a strategy that has worked for the Konkan railway line where the company visited villages, explaining the concept and winning acceptance. The mass equity base will provide the safety equivalent to a government project, explains Rajaram. Air-conditioned travel in a sky-bus should cost 20-50 paise per km, compared to Rs. 6 by train. anybody who buys 100 shares of Rs. 150 each will get two peak journey and unlimited off-peak journeys a day for his lifetime. Even cabbies who lose their business with the skybus will be allowed to invest and encash the free journeys in km cards. They could also sell these to floating commuters through kiosks that KRC: will set up and earn up to Rs. 300 per day. The Maharashtra government has offered Rs. 25 crore and the right-of-way to start work.
Charubala Annuncio, 'Suspended Animation', A Revolutionary Rapid Transport System Promises to Change the Face of City Commuting, Outlook, New Delhi, 03 September 2001.[C.J32.030901OUT].

Work on the sealink has also drawn numerous protests from the fishing community, which resides along the Mahim-Worli coast. The anglers allege that excess land is being reclaimed besides citing a threat to their livelihood...
Environmentalists for their part, say the project will choke to death the mangroves growing in the mouth of the Mahim creek. They also say the narrowing of the Mahim creek will result in a rise in the water level at Dadar.
Anuradha Nagaraj, 'MSRDC Reclaims 22 Hectares Extra', Bandra-Worli Sealink: Environment Ministry says CRZ has Been Breached, MSRDC says it is Not Responsible", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 13 April 2000.[C.E31b.130400IE].

The memorandum stated that at present, reclamation work at Mahim is in full swing, and has already closed the mouth of Mahim Creek which has already started showing adverse effects. Dadar chowpaty has already vanished under water. The possibility of damage to the buildings near the sea face at Worli, Prabhadevi, Dadar, Shivaji Park, Mahim and Bandra has created fear amongst the residents.
Staff Reporter, "Bandra-Worli Seaway is an Environmental Nightmare", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 January 2000. [C.E31b.070100TOI].

Express News Service, "Effects Of Sealink:Experts Tell Residents All", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 05 September 2000. [C.E31b.050900IE].

The Worli fishing community is already facing a problem with respect to accessibility. The Mahim Bay on the north side of the village has in the last few years undergone an adverse ecological change, The whole bay near Worli is under heavy sedimentation of sludge that has been deposited due to an inactive inter-tidal zone.
John Manjali, 'Worli Fishermen in Troubled Waters', Sealink Project Threatens Age-Old Occupation", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 02 January 2001.[C.E31b.020101AA].

According to Mr. Girish Raut of the Shivaji Park Dakshata Committee, the sealink project is a "fancy scheme" using public money for the benefit of a very few percentage of the population. "Moreover, the Bandra-Worli Sealink Project with an estimated cost of Rs. 715 crore has also destroyed livelihood of many hundreds of fishermen who are basically into shallow fishing. It is ironical that the government claims there are no project affected people who need compensation."
John Manjali, 'State Did Not Assess Ecological Impact", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 20 February 2001. [C.E31b.200201AA].

Our Regional Bureau, 'Western Sealink Project Gets Environmental Nod', CRZ Clearance Accorded to 9394 Plots of Land", Business Standard, Kolkatta, 13 February 2003. [C.J32.130203BSB].

Captain Jha said the entire service will be run on a market-driven approach and that the private contractors will have the liberty to fix the ticket price for the hour-long voyage.
Nitin Yeshwantrao, "Vilasrao Okays Commuter Ferry System for City Coast", The Times of India, Mumbai, 06 October 2001. [C.J32.061001TOI].

However, with rail and public road transport accounting for 80 per cent of the city's traffic, the proposed scheme has just the remaining 20 per cent in mind. They are vehicle owners or first-class passengers and this translates to 30,000-40,000 passengers - nearly two per cent of the two million commuters travelling from Borivali to Nariman Point every day.
Rajshri Mehta, 'On The Waterfront', Skyrail or Skybus? As the Debate on the Mode to Decongest Roads Rages", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 04 October 2002. [C.J32.041002IE].

Our Correspondent, 'First AC/DC Train Flagged Off At Churchgate', Will Initially Ply Till Virar, New Local Will Save Time, Energy", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 15 January 2001. [C.J32.150101AA].

Rajshri Mehta, "NEWSLINE SPECIAL: Mumbai, here’s the plan for your metro", Indian Express, Bombay, 29 Sept 03,  [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/29sep03ie1.html http://cities.expressindia.com/archivefullstory.php?newsid=64467&creation_date=2003-09-29
Abs: FLYOVERS, MUTP, BEST

New flyovers, elevated roads, subways and more. It could ease your commute. Just hope they can round up the money.
Rajshri Mehta, "Rs. 2,000-cr Plan to Transform City Unveiled", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 26 April 2003, [C.J32],  eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M035.html
http://cities.expressindia.com/archivefullstory.php?newsid=50248&creation_date=2003-04-26

Traffic department statistics reveal that instances of fatal accidents in the city have gone up with the increase in number of flyovers.
Viju B.,"Flyover Fatale", Mid-Day, Mumbai, 03 June 2001, [ C. J32],  /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M037.html
Original URL http://www.mid-day.com/news/city/2001/june/11490.htm

When it rains in Mumbai, for the motorist, taxi driver and other road warriors, it truly pours. Potholes, pebbles and puddles appear where roads once were, making the daily commute in the commercial capital more like a slow bump and grind.
Vaishnavi Sekhar, "Mumbai's Roads Offer Motorists a Pothole to Ride", The Times of India, Mumbai, 27 August 2001. [C.J32.270801TOI].

The source of this fund, according to him, could come from a road cess on fuel, vehicle licence fees and toll charges...
An enhanced property tax surcharge on property transactions surcharge on sales tax on tyres, tubes and motor parts and levy of upto two per cent of wage bill of industrial and commercial establishments employing more than 50 people could also be considered for Mumbai's transport fund.
Nauzer Bharucha, "Expert Says Special Fund is Needed to Improve City's Transport System",The Times of India, Mumbai, 05 February 2003. [C.J32.050203TOI].

MMRDA officials told TNN that they were examining a proposal to reserve lanes for buses on some high-density corridors running through the city.
Vaishnavi C. Sekhar, "Dedicated Lanes for Buses on Main Roads Suggested", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 March 2003. [C.J32.120303TOI].

Perched on a 1056 sq mt sea-facing plot adjacent to Mafatlal Garden, the municipality's maiden venture in mechanised parking will considerably ease the traffic chaos in the up-market shopping area infamous for its maddening all-day rush to lodge one's car.
Anshika Misra, "Multi-Level Car Park to Steer Mumbai Out of Traffic Jams", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 March 2003. [C.J32.020303TOI].

The problems facing the common pedestrian have become in surmountable, as he struggles over under and around roadworks, open holes filthy debris, hawkers, and parked vehicles..
The MMRDA counters that four schemes exist to deal with the acknowledged pedestrian problems. The Pedestrian Grade Separation Scheme, creating thirty new subways, all of which will have satisfactory ventilation and disabled access, after continued pressure from the CGSL, SATIS, or Station Area Traffic improvement Scheme which proposes to clear six stations. A traffic management and pedestrian safety programme, an as yet unspectfied plan to improve footpaths. And road-over-rail bridges to eliminate the last of the level crossings.
Venetia Ansell, "MUTP Walks Over Pedestrians' Rights", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 January 2003. [C.J32.240103TOI].

Vaishnavi C. Sekhar, "MUTP Project Won't Remove Congestion, Only Reduce It", The Times of India, Mumbai, 30 July 2002. [C.J32.300702TOI].

The execution of the SCLR project is expected to cost Rs. 125 crore. The project would displace about 3,700 persons residing in its route, with the Maharashtra Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) disbursing Rs. 50 crore for their rehabilitation.
Vidya, "City To Get Its First Two-Level Flyover", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 13 July 2002. [C.J32.130702IE].

Executive director of MSRDC R.K. Jha said the technical and financial feasibility studies of the project would take another year. The project is estimated to cost Rs. 125 - Rs. 150 crore and it would take two years to complete...
He added tht the Peddar Road viaduct would still be required even after the sea link between Haji Ali and Nariman Point was completed. The union environment and forest ministry has still to give the clerance for the 14-km link over the sea between these two points. The first phase, between Bandra and Worli, will be completed by April 2004.
Times News Network, "MSRDC Projects Vision of Future For Peddar Road", The Times of India, Mumbai, 06 April 2002. [C.J32.060402TOI].

The Pedder Road project should be more accurately called a viaduct because it is over a very long stretch. A flyover a mainly over a junction. this viaduct is not desirable on many counts. One, it will only shift congestion from one point to another...
The project would also be an environmental disaster. Emissions on the road below would be trapped because of the construction above and particularly because of the high-rise buildings on both sides.
Vidyadhar Date, "In The Long Run, Fancy Flyover Projects Do Not Benefit Even Motorists, Says Transport Expert", The Times of India, Mumbai, 27 March 2002. [C.J32.270302TOI].

We suggested underground pedestrian crossings at Villa Theresa school, Cadbury House and the junction of Altamount, Carmichael and Pedder roads. Though the plan was prepered by experts, it was rejected by the traffic department on the ground of it posing 'possible danger to VIP security'.
Smita Deshmukh, "Why Pedder Road Really Needs A Flyover' Are Pedder Road Residents Stalling The Project at the Cost of Thousands of Motorists? ", The Times of India, Mumbai, 13 March 2002. [C.J32.130302TOI].

Anshika Misra, "Pedder Road Residents Propose Traffic Restraint to Avoid Flyover", The Times of India, Mumbai, 04 October 2001. [C.J32.041001TOI].

Most cities have adopted a series of solutions such as expanding roads, construction of flyovers, and restriction on slowmoving vehicles. However, the international experience suggests that such measures encourage the use of private cars, increasing the pressure on city resources and do not lead to intended mobility benefits...
The majority of commuters in Indian cities rely on non-motorised modes and public transport modes, Therefore, especially at a time when car ownership is increasing, infrastructure planning and investments in public transport systems are required to provide a comfortable and convenient option to city residents that can compete with the comforts provided by a private car.
Dr. Geetam Tiwari, "Buzz About Buses", The Times of India, Mumbai, 23 February 2002. [C.J32.230202TOI].

It's packed with people, inundated with chemical waste and choc-a-bloc with every other conceivable vestige of humanity. Yet, life for the 8 lakh people who populate Dharavi bustles along despite the absence of one of Mumbai's trademarks -- the BEST bus -- in Asia's largest slum. Coupled with the near absence of autorickshaws, the residents here have therefore had to tiptoe their way around this inconvenience for decades.
Vidya, "3,430 Buses in City But Not Even One in Dharavi", The India Express, Mumbai, 18 August 2001. [C.J32.180801IE].

"The construction of malls will also lead to higher pollution levels as, instead of disbursing the traffic they will now be attrating more."
Express News Service, "Shopping Malls Under Kalina Flyover Too", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 21 July 2001. [C.J32.210701IE].

In a memorandum, the delegation also demanded rehabilitation protection to all living in slums that have come up on the Central Government lands in Mumbai before January 1, 1995. An assurance of alternate housing or land has already been given by the state government to the squatters on state lands. About 30 lakh people are living in slums in Mumbai on the lands belonging to the defence, railways, forest department and Mumbai Port Trust.
The Times of India News Service, "Central Government Will Help Speed Up MUTP", The Times of India, Mumbai, 10 July 2001. [C.J32.100701].

Another reason for the worsening of air quality, he adds, is that these fly-overs tend to attract traffic from neighbouring competing roads as well; giving rise to traffic congestion and higher levels of pollution...
"Mr. Patankar points out that these viaducts fail to serve the very purpose they are built for, i.e. to enable faster movement of traffic. "Traffic cannot be flushed out faster by building these viaducts. Only a marginal increase has been noted in the speed of cars using viaducts," he says...
"Several studies have shown that the only solution to the impending traffic problem in the city is to strengthen public transport and introduce demand management measures to discourage shift from public transport to private vehicles," says Mr. Patankar. "Then what purpose will these viaducts built for private cars, which benefits only 16 per cent of the total travel demand serve?" he adds.
Anshika Misra, "Haji Ali-Wilson College Flyovers Will Worsen Air Quality: TCS Study", The Times of India, Mumbai, 28 May 2001. [C.J32.280501TOI].

The study weas triggered by complaints of respiratory health problems among residents in the last six months. "Many people had been complaining of colds and coughs that wouldn't go away," says Rakesh Kumar the head of NEERI, Mumbai. Particulate matter or coarse particles accumulate in the respiratory system and aggravate illnesses like asthma. In addition, researchers found that the samples of suspended particulate matter also contained high levels of cement. "This is due to the fact that during the construction, cement concrete, air casting of fillers, cement slurry spill over the road," says Mr. Kumar.
Vaishnavi C. Sekhar, "Work At Worli Flyover Is Affecting Health of Residents, Says NEERI", The Times of India, Mumbai, 23 May 2001. [C.J32.230501TOI].

Ramesh Kundanmal, a steering committee member and in-charge of the Strategy and Planning Department of the association, has proposed that a flyover be constructed starting from Castrophine Company (between Annie Besant Road and Worli) and Sai and Sanghi petrol pump. With its pillars resting on the Lovegrove drainage channel, it could proceed towards Mahalaxmi station. Here onwards the flyover would run above the railway lines and end at Churchgate where traffic would be allowed to fan out through three octopus arms; one directed towards Nariman Point, the other towards Colaba and another going towards Ballard Pier.
Express News Service, "Pedder Road Plans to Move Headache to Churchgate", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 04 May 2001. [C.J32.040501IE].

"HC Urged to Allow Commercial Use of Space Below Andheri Flyover", The Times of India, Mumbai, 20 January 2001. [C.J33.200101TOI].

With the rumble under the slew of flyovers being built in the city disturting residents and motorists alike the focus has now shifted to the 1.5-km-long road brisge at Dadar. The only flyover to be built by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) and inaugurated in July last year, the structure appears to be turning into among other things, a shelter for the homeless, an ad-hoc parking facility and a public unnal. Residents of the locality say that the attendent problems this brings could become a bane and are threatening to defeat the very purpose the flyover is meant to serve.
Vidya, "Under The Over There's Utter Chaos, Say Dadar Residents", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 25 August 2000, [C.J33.250800IE].

The (MUTP) project, estimated to cost about Rs. 4,554 crores, has several components: (i) systems improvement and network expansion of railways, (ii) traffic management, and (iii) road infrastructure improvement. An interesting feature of this project is the rehabilitation and resettlement of project-affected persons...
The proponents of the project maintain that the capital, as also depreciation and interest, can be recovered effectively within a reasonable time span of less thatn three yers given the vibrancy of demand for such transport in cities like Mumbai The Konkan Railway Corporation is going to be the major body responsible for the implementation of the project with financing made through a combination of debt and equity. The project will be based on build, own and operate method of promoting public-private partnerships.
"MUTP: A Step Toward Improvement of Mumbai's Transport", Bombay First, Mumbai, April-May 2002. [C.J06.010402].

Hemalata C. Dandekar & Sulakshana Mahajan, 'MSRDC and Mumbai-Pune Expressway', A Sustainable Model for Privatising Construction of Physical Infrastructure?" Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, 17 February 2001. P.549-559. [J.17FEB01EPW].

Saumya Roy, "Bridge Sessions", Outlook, New Delhi, 13 Oct 2003, [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/13oct03out1.htm
http://www.outlookindia.com/full.asp?fodname=20031013&fname=Traffic+%28F%29&sid=1

Chandrachur Ghose, "The anatomy of congestion",  Down To Earth, New Delhi, 15 May, 2003, [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/15may03dte5.html
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/cover.asp?foldername=20030515&filename=Anal&sid=1&sec_id=7

Rajshri Mehta,"Rs 2,000-cr plan to transform city unveiled",  Indian Express, Bombay, 26 Apr. 2003, [C.J32], /eldoc/j32_/26apr03ie1.html http://cities.expressindia.com/archivefullstory.php?newsid=50248&creation_date=2003-04-26

Viju B,"Flyover fatale: Accidents on the rise",Mid-Day, 03 June 2001, [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/03jun01mid1.html
http://www.mid-day.com/news/city/2001/june/11490.htm

Dr. S. Sriraman, "Major Modes of Transport in Mumbai : Issues and Options", [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/majormodes.htm
http://www.bombayfirst.org/citymag/vol2no1/majormodes.htm

"Mumbai Urban Transport Project", [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/MUTP-I.htm
http://www.worldbank.org.in/sar/sa.nsf/0/9f41f5ee60ae9d7185256ba00044f9fe?OpenDocument
.
Shilpa Puri, "Mumbai Urban Transport Project-II", [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/MUTP-II.htm
http://www.projectsmonitor.com/detailnews.asp?newsid=2810

Darryl D'Monte, "Driving to nowhere", [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/urb_trpt.htm
http://www.hinduonnet.com/folio/fo0108/01080140.htm

Bina C. Balakrishnan, "Urban Transportation in Mumbai - The Need for an Integrated Hierarchy of MassTransportation Systems", [C..J32.],/eldoc/j32_/ut.htm http://www.bombayfirst.org/citymag/vol2no1/urban.htm

M. Q. Dalvi, "Some Reflections on Transport Problems in Mumbai", [C.J32.], /eldoc/j32_/tran_prbl.htm
http://www.bombayfirst.org/citymag/vol2no1/reflections.htm

The Maharashtra government has to spend only Rs 1,500 crore a year over the next 10 years to  transform Mumbai into a world class city by 2013...
Renni Abraham , "Rs 1500 crore a year for Mumbai makeover", 06 Nov 2003, [C.J06.],  /docsweb/urban-issues/mckinsey-ud.html  http://www.newsispat.com/September03/26th/bs/rs%201500.htm